If you happen to be here once in a while, you will have noticed that I’ve changed the layout of this blog to a less baroque and more standard one. I’ve also removed almost all the blogrolls, links and all the old “News”. I guess nobody reads that anyway, and now the page loads way faster.
Across the street from our office there once was a market square with lots of small booths. I never saw it, because when we got there four and a half years ago (not longer, really?), the market was abolished, the booths torn down and the square fenced in.
People in the neighborhood had fought for their market, but to no avail. An office building was planned in that place. Or a hotel. I’m not sure. Still the square is empty and fenced in.
In the beginning the wooden fences were densely covered in adertising posters, but the furious people kept tearing them down. A few times I have taken images of the fence and the remains of the ads. Today almost all traces of ads are gone. At least it’s more honest.
Villach is an interesting town. I grew up in Klagenfurt, 35 kilometers away, and Klagenfurt had very distinct quarters. There was a district around a hill on the north-western side, that was where the rich lived. South-west and east were much less noble, and the part where I lived was technically within Klagenfurt’s borders, but practically considered countryside.
Villach is different. It has smaller districts, and for instance the nobler resideces are scattered much more. One of the reasons is, that Villach is at the confluence of two rivers, at the cross of two railway lines and two major roads. Villach is cut in two by a meandering river Drau, and then once again by its railway lines. In effect, whenever you want from A to B, your first thought is “What bridge should I take?”. Add to that a few hills and you have a varied geography made up of small and very different neighborhoods.
This is a noise barrier along the western railway line. Pink is not necessarily my color, but I enjoyed it in February 😀
I love creamy bokeh. I always did, but since my departure from the Nikon world, I have mostly used cameras and lenses that were not strong on shallow DOF.
First came the Panasonic LX5, a compact camera with a comparably large multi-aspect sensor, RAW capability, unbeatably light weight and ergonomics that got everything right. It wasn’t even my idea. Juha Haataja, a remarkably good photographer, at that time used its predecessor, the LX3, exclusively. He raved on and on about it and I just wanted to try using such a camera. Who knows, I thought. In the end I stuck with it for nine or ten months. I still have it, I still love it, and from time to time I even use it 🙂
The LX5 had a very sharp and fast lens, but of course due to its small sensor size, shallow DOF was not its biggest merit.
Interestingly enough it didn’t put me off though, I just developed a new style. Massive depth of field was easy to achieve, and therefore I concentrated on composition and lines. I think that doing so made me a better photographer.
The on-going liaison with Micro Four Thirds was what followed. Larger sensor, long and reasonably fast lenses like the 75/1.8, but still, shallow DOF was not so easily achieved. At least until I bought this lens, the Mitakon Speedmaster 25/0.95. Not only does it open wide, it also focuses close. The result of both these properties is what you see in today’s image.
Being in a mundane environment has many advantages as well. For instance you see what you see over and again in always different lighting situations.
On the other hand, it may be worth trying, and still being there the next day at least gives you an option.
This is the fence on the backside of a storage area of some small workshop. What struck me was the contrast between the tender filligree of the flowers and the almost brutal reality behind the fence. I feel some deeper truth about the soul here, and besides, it’s our own choice, which side we’re on.
In Austria and most of Europe this summer was the hottest in recorded history and we’ve been recording meteorological data for centuries. The next few record-breaking summers before were all on this side of the millenium. Science has established climate change as one of the best supported theories of all times. It’s not as established as the theory of evolution, but it’s close. Unfortunately some people don’t grok science.
The scientific method initially observes a fact, and from reasoning about this fact a hypothesis is drawn. The hypothesis is not a fact. It’s only supported by logic based on assumptions, axioms. It has a predictive value though, and that can be tested. If the hypothesis holds, it must have consequences, and if we’re lucky, we may be able to observe the predicted consequences as facts in the real world.
Sometimes, in fact most of the time, it is not possible to just wait for something to happen. You have to carefully create an environment where it is likely to happen if the hypothesis holds, and at the same time unlikely if it does not. That’s called an experiment.
Theories explain why things in the real world happen as they do. A well-supported theory is perfectly able to predict – within its scope. Newton’s theory of gravitation is pretty perfect at predicting what happens to apples on planet Earth, and in fact it does so for any kind of small object in relation to any kind of giant object. For everything out of scope Einstein’s theory of relativity is your friend.
Most people don’t grok science. They expect science to establish facts, “truths”, but that’s not what science is about. Science analyzes to the degree that is necessary to prove that gathered data supports a hypothesis. Science proves that what we observe is not an illusion and that it can be reproduced.
It may come as a disappointment that science does not drill for final truth, but if you think about it, we’ve come pretty far that way, and we’ve done it one step at a time. With conventional mechanics we could build anything from the pyramids of old to the sky scrapers of our age. Relativity and quantum mechanics gave us predictive tools good enough to send probes to the frontiers of the Solar system, to construct tiny computers with power unthinkable only 50 years before, ready for you to surf the Internets or to call your mum.
Science has not told us the complete inner secrets of silicon, but it was good enough to let us work it and create memory chips capable of storing more literature than you could ever read, and additionally a few of your vacation snapshots. I recently returned from a trip with 1244 images or 28.7 GB on my SD card.
We all have smartphones, digital cameras, personal computers, and that mankind can build these things is due to the predictive power of theories.
Theories enable us to repeatably achieve what is within the predictive scope of the theory. The “true reason” why things happen as the theory predicts may lie much deeper, but as long as it repeatably works (and in the end we get an iPhone), the theory is “good enough”.
Denial of climate change is frequently “grounded” in observation of seemingly contradictory facts. Texas had a lot of water this summer, and that seems to compensate for the drought in California or my “hottest summer”. Isn’t that understandable? We observe and we draw conclusions. Why is this suddenly different from what Sir Isaac did?
Well, we’re pretty much past the ages where falling apples called for explanation. More or less everything that can be observed by lay people “just so” has already been subject to extensive scientific scrutinity. Thanks for your observations and anecdotal evidence, but floods in Texas are perfectly in line with the theory of climate change.
The problem is, that those who don’t grok science have false expectations, and that is due to the dimensions of the problem. Have you ever seen on TV how the winning numbers in a lottery are drawn? Here is some random video from Austrian television. It always begins with the same neat array of numbered balls that, with the press of a button are tossed into a transparent vessel where air is blown in. We perfectly accept that the outcome is random. We even bet money on it.
The collissions of those plastic balls are chaotic enough that we have no theory powerful enough to predict the numbers. On the other hand, we have powerful theories predicting exactly that unpredictability.
Weather is like a giant lotto machine. It should be perfectly obvious that we are not able to exactly predict it in all its micro-aspects. Unfortunately what means “micro” in giant systems, can be the whole observable environment for a single human observer. Therefore we should never rule out a drop of rain on a day predicted to stay dry in our larger area.
But really, regional weather forecasts have vastly improved in my lifetime. They still get it wrong occasionally, but this is in the range of a few degrees more or less or of a rain front coming a day later than predicted. For short-term vacation planning this is already “good enough”. I know that it does not make sense driving down to Italy next weekend when the weather forecast predicts low pressure over Genoa.
That precision, imprecise as it may seem from the vantage point of a single observer, is enabled by vast computer models grounded in complicated theories based on centuries of research.
It’s the same kind of models that are employed on a global scale to predict the effects of climate change, but complexity rises vastly with scale, and while we have a dense network of sensors in our urban areas, it is sparse on much of the planet. Historical data does not exist everywhere to the same degree as it does in Europe, and all that forces us to compensate by much guesswork. In other words, it’s complicated and we are far from making good predictions. We can predict a rise of global average temperatures and an increase in extreme weather situations though.
People who don’t grok science have similar problems with the theory of evolution, and again it is a problem of scale, but this time it is the enormous length of time it takes evolution to achieve change. The problem is, that this change is completely invisible during a human lifespan. That all is complicated by the conflict with naive human explanation tools, i.e. with religion. Of course even religious people can watch evolution work on bacteria, but that all does not help when they deny the analogies to other life forms. It’s all “God made the ones changing and the others unchanging”. Oh Lord!
In reality there is a place for philosophy and maybe even for religion at the side of science. At least there are or were true scientists who are or were religious. Einstein was an example. They are or were only not naively religious.
As a species, humans are mostly illogical. They deny that we’ve been on the moon, but they perfectly accept and expect that GPS receivers in their phones tell them their exact position. They don’t think of smartphones in terms of the vast knowledge necessary to produce them, they think of them in terms of magic.
As always, politics is where things get really muddy. Politicians are mostly like normal people though. They are normal people, except that they have much more power. They have no scientific education, they don’t know what to expect and what not to expect from science. They are managers and not scientists, and for some stupid reason we expect managers to make the right decisions, even though they are completely unqualified for everything but following their guts.
Still, many politicians have some higher education and they are not completely at odds with science. When they insist on unscientific nonsense anyway, their reason is what we call an agenda.
The takeaway of all this? Even if you feel you don’t trust science, you probably trust your smartphone and your digital camera, and even if you don’t, you trust on the brakes of your car. Every time. You bet your life on them.
Guess what? Shockingly you trust in science 🙂